Different Types of EV Charging Connectors: What You Need to Know

Different Types of EV Charging Connectors: What You Need to Know

5 7 月, 2024

When we charge our electric vehicles or buy a charger, we need to understand the different types of charging connectors. From Type 1 and Type 2 connectors to the fast charging capabilities of CCS and CHAdeMO, and Tesla’s unique Supercharger network, this article will take you through how each type of charging connector can help you charge more efficiently.

What are EV Charging Connectors?

Electric vehicle charging connectors are the plugs and receptacles used to connect electric vehicles (EVs) to charging stations to recharge the battery. There are several types of these connectors, each designed to accommodate different charging speeds and regional standards. Understanding these connectors is important for EV owners to ensure compatibility and efficient charging of their vehicles.

What Are the Common EV Charging Connector Types?

There are several common types of electric vehicle (EV) charging connectors, each of which can meet different regional standards and power requirements. The following are the most commonly used connectors:

  1. Type 1 Connector (SAE J1772): The Type 1 connector is called SAE J1772 and is used primarily in North America and parts of Asia. This connector is a circular design with five pins and a locking mechanism to ensure a secure connection during charging. Type 1 connectors support AC EV chargers up to 7.4 kW, making them ideal for residential use and overnight charging, with a typical charging time of 6 to 8 hours. As such, they are a solid choice for many American and Asian electric vehicles.
  2. Type 2 Connector (Mennekes): The Type 2 connector, or Mennekes, is a standard connector in Europe that is increasingly being adopted elsewhere. It has a total of seven pins and can handle both single-phase and three-phase power, supporting up to 43 kW of power. Compared to the Type 1 connector, the Type 2 connector can shorten charging time, generally taking 3 to 4 hours to charge fully. As a result, the Type 2 connector is popular among European manufacturers for its versatility and high compatibility and is suitable for both public and residential installations.
  3. CCS (Combined Charging System): The combined charging system (CCS) is a versatile connector that supports both AC EV chargers and high-speed DC fast chargers, using a Type 2 connector with two additional DC prongs. It can deliver up to 350 kW of power for ultra-fast charging, allowing an electric vehicle to be charged to 80% in just 20 minutes. As a result, CCS’s fast charging capabilities have become a favorite among European and American manufacturers and a global standard for new electric vehicles.
  4. CHAdeMO: CHAdeMO is a Japanese standard connector with fast DC charging capabilities that can deliver up to 62.5 kW of power. It enables electric vehicles to be charged to 80% in about 30 minutes, making it the best choice for fast charging. CHAdeMO leads with its large size and complex locking mechanism. In addition, it is widely used by Japanese manufacturers such as Nissan and Mitsubishi, and it not only supports bidirectional charging but is also more friendly to smart grid applications.
  5. Tesla Supercharger: The Tesla Supercharger is a stylish, user-friendly design designed specifically for Tesla vehicles that supports DC fast chargers up to 250 kW. And it can add 200 miles of range in just 15 minutes, making it one of the fastest charging technologies available. In addition, the proprietary nature of Tesla Superchargers ensures that they are only available to Tesla owners, supporting an exclusive and efficient charging network around the world.d.

The unique features and capabilities of these connector types above help every user understand their differences and applications in the field of electric vehicle charging.

EV Charging Connector

How Do Different Connectors Influence Charging Speed?

The speed at which an electric vehicle (EV) charges is affected by a variety of factors, such as the type of charging connector used, the power output of the charging station, the vehicle’s onboard charging capabilities, and other factors. Let’s take a look at how these factors affect charging speed:

1. Charging Connector Types

    Different connectors offer different high-power levels, which directly impact charging speed: AC connectors (Type 1, Type 2): These connectors charge slower because the AC EV Charger is limited by the onboard charger, which converts AC power from the grid to DC power for the battery. Type 1 connectors can deliver up to 7.4 kW, while Type 2 connectors can handle up to 43 kW.

    DC fast-charging connectors (CCS, CHAdeMO, Tesla Superchargers): These connectors bypass the onboard charger and can deliver DC power directly to the battery, enabling higher power levels—up to 350 kW for CCS, about 62.5 kW for CHAdeMO, and up to 250 kW for Tesla Superchargers. This can reduce charging times.

    2. Power Output of the Charging Station

    The maximum output of the charging station is a key factor. If both the vehicle and the connector can support high power input, the actual charging speed is still determined by the power the charging station can provide. For example, a charging station with a maximum output of 50 kW cannot charge a 100 kW vehicle, even if the vehicle’s connector and onboard charger are capable of handling higher rates.

    3. The Vehicle’s Onboard Charger

    The onboard charger has a maximum charging rate in the AC EV Charger scenario. For example, if an electric vehicle’s onboard charger can only handle up to 11 kW, using a Type 2 connector with a 22 kW output will not speed up charging because the vehicle cannot accept more than 11 kW.

    4. Battery Management System (BMS)

    The BMS plays a key role in charging because it controls the battery’s charge rate to optimize the battery’s health and life. It can also reduce the charging rate to prevent overheating, especially when the battery is close to full capacity. This management may slow down the charging rate after reaching about 80% of the charge.

    5. Battery State

    The current state of the battery, such as its temperature and charge level, affects the charging rate. When the battery is too hot or too cold, or close to full capacity, the charging rate will slow down. Preconditioning systems in electric vehicles can help by bringing the battery to the optimal charging temperature before connecting it to the charger.

    6. Environmental Conditions

    External temperature and weather conditions can also affect charging efficiency. Extreme cold or heat can hinder the battery’s ability to charge quickly, necessitating the need for more sophisticated thermal management systems in the vehicle.

    Understanding these factors can help EV owners improve charging efficiency and better plan their energy needs, especially when using public charging stations or planning long journeys.


    Choosing the Right Connector for Your EV

    Choosing the right charging connector for your electric vehicle (EV) requires not only compatibility but also optimized charging efficiency. Here are the key factors and steps to consider when choosing the right connector for your electric vehicle:

    1. Check Vehicle Specifications: First, check your vehicle manual or manufacturer’s website to determine which types of connectors are compatible with your electric vehicle. Most vehicles are designed to work with a specific type of charging connector.
    2. Understand Connector Types: Become familiar with the most common types of EV charger connectors: Type 1 (SAE J1772), Type 2 (Mennekes), CCS (Combined Charging System), CHAdeMO, and Tesla Supercharger.
    3. Consider Your Charging Habits: Think about where and how often you need to charge your EV. If you often need to charge quickly, it may be better to choose a fast-charging connector type such as CCS or Tesla Supercharger. For home charging, speed may not be as important, and choosing Type 1 or Type 2 may be sufficient.
    4. Evaluate Charging Locations: Check the availability of charging stations in your area or on your regular routes. Some connectors are more prevalent in certain regions. For example, if you live in Europe, you will find more Type 2 and CCS chargers, while in Japan, CHAdeMO may be more readily available.
    5. Future-Proof: Consider future scalability and support for connector types. As the EV market grows, certain standards may become more dominant. Choosing a connector type that is widely supported and likely to be adopted by more sites in the future may offer advantages.
    6. Evaluate Additional Features: Some connectors offer additional features, such as enhanced safety measures, weather resistance, or user-friendly design. Evaluate these features to see if they add value based on your specific needs and circumstances.
    7. Consult the EV Community: Participate in online forums and local EV groups to learn from the experiences of other EV owners. They can provide practical insights and recommendations based on actual usage and geographic factors.

    By carefully considering these aspects, you can select the EV charger connector that best suits your vehicle needs and daily use, ensuring a convenient and efficient charging experience.


    Understanding the different types of EV charger connectors can improve the efficiency and convenience of EV charging. Each type has unique advantages that suit various needs and regions. By considering your vehicle specifications, charging habits, and the availability of charging stations, you can choose the connector that best suits your requirements. It becomes easier and more efficient to have your vehicle charged and ready to go.